NCI & WHO Monograph: The Economics of Tobacco and Tobacco Control – Individual Chapters

Tobacconomics team members were the scientific editors and co-authors of this monograph, a collaboration between the National Cancer Institute and the World Health Organization. The report examines the current research and evidence base surrounding the economics of tobacco control—including tobacco use, tobacco growing, manufacturing and trade, tobacco product taxes and prices, and tobacco control policies and other interventions to reduce tobacco use and its consequences. This information can help direct future research and inform tobacco prevention and control programs and policies in countries around the world.

Table of Contents:

    • Table of Contents
    • Figures and Tables
    • Prefaces
    • Acknowledgements
    • Abbreviations
    • Glossary

Section 1—Introduction

  • Chapter 1. Overview and Conclusions (PDF 467 KB)
    • Introduction
    • WHO FCTC: A Framework for Action
    • Preparation of This Monograph
    • Major Accomplishments
    • Major Conclusions
    • Chapter Summaries and Conclusions
    • References
    • Appendix 1A. Country Groupings

Section 2—Situation Analysis/Mapping

Section 3—Price Determinants of Demand

  • Chapter 4. The Impact of Tax and Price on the Demand for Tobacco Products (PDF 1.2 MB)
    • Introduction
    • Rationale for Levying Excise Taxes on Tobacco Products
    • Modeling the Demand for Cigarettes
    • Empirical Data on Cigarette Price, Affordability, and Taxes
    • Methods of Assessing the Impact of Tax and Price on Use of Tobacco Products
    • Evidence on the Impact of Tax and Price on Tobacco Use
    • Tax, Price, and Tobacco Use: Other Key Findings
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Design and Administration of Taxes on Tobacco Products (PDF 1.2 MB)
    • Introduction
    • An Overview of Taxes on Tobacco Products
    • Tobacco Product Tax Administration
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
    • Appendix 5A. Recommendations From Guidelines for the Implementation of Article 6 of the WHO FCTC

Section 4—Non-Price Determinants of Demand

  • Chapter 6. The Impact of Smoke-Free Policies (PDF 887 KB)
    • Introduction
    • Economic Rationale for Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policies
    • Country Adoption of Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policies
    • Smoke-Free Policies: Enforcement, Compliance, and Public Support
    • The Impact of Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policies
    • Smoke-Free Policies: Implications for Businesses and Government, and Other Intangible Costs
    • Smoke-Free Policies: Cost-Effectiveness
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 7. The Impact of Tobacco Industry Marketing Communications on Tobacco Use (PDF 696 KB)
    • Introduction
    • Global Implementation of Tobacco Marketing Restrictions
    • Econometric Studies of the Impact of Tobacco Marketing
    • Econometric Studies of Bans on Tobacco Advertising
    • Population-Level Studies of Tobacco Advertising
    • Studies of Indirect Tobacco Marketing
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 8. The Impact of Information on the Demand for Tobacco Products (PDF 1.7 MB)
    • Introduction
    • Tobacco Industry Efforts to Limit and Distort Public Knowledge
    • Information Interventions to Reduce Demand for Tobacco
    • Information Shocks
    • Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaigns
    • School-Based Tobacco Education Programs
    • Health Warning Labels
    • Tobacco Packaging: Banning Misleading Descriptors and Requiring Plain Packaging
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Smoking Cessation (PDF 833 KB)
    • Introduction
    • Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation
    • Economic Benefits of Smoking Cessation
    • Current Interventions and Programs for Smoking Cessation
    • Studies Assessing the Utility of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems for Cessation
    • Demand-Side Factors Related to Smoking Cessation Treatment
    • Supply-Side or Regulatory Factors
    • Adoption and Implementation of Cessation Interventions: Challenges and Opportunities
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References

Section 5—Policy and Other Influences on the Supply of Tobacco Products

  • Chapter 10. Tobacco Growing and Tobacco Product Manufacturing (PDF 947 KB)
    • Introduction
    • The Global Context of Tobacco Growing
    • Price Supports and Other Support/Subsidy Programs
    • Crop Substitution and Diversification Programs
    • The Evolving Tobacco Industry
    • Tobacco Product Regulation
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 11. Policies Limiting Youth Access to Tobacco Products (PDF 567 KB)
    • Introduction
    • Types of Youth Access Policies and Their Intended Impact
    • Economic Rationale for Youth Access Policies
    • Sources of Tobacco Products for Youth
    • Country Adoption of Youth Access Legal Measures
    • The Impact of Youth Access Policies on Youth Smoking Behavior
    • Costs of Youth Access Interventions
    • Implementation, Enforcement, and Compliance With Youth Access Policies
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Tobacco Manufacturing Privatization and Foreign Direct Investment and Their Impact on Public Health (PDF 877 KB)
    • Introduction
    • Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview
    • Privatization of State-Owned Enterprises: An Overview
    • Foreign Direct Investment and Privatization in the Tobacco Sector
    • Evolution and Consolidation in the Tobacco Industry
    • Privatization and Foreign Direct Investment From a Public Health Perspective
    • China as a Market Leader
    • Trends in International Investment Law
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 13. Licit Trade in Tobacco Products (PDF 1.5 MB)
    • Introduction
    • Overview of Tobacco Trade
    • Trade Liberalization and Tobacco Consumption
    • Trade Agreements and Tobacco Control
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Tobacco Tax Avoidance and Tax Evasion (PDF 1.3 KB)
    • Introduction
    • Means of Circumventing Taxes
    • Measurement of Tobacco Tax Avoidance and Evasion
    • Determinants of Tax Avoidance and Evasion
    • Measures to Tackle Illicit Activities: The Illicit Trade Protocol
    • Illicit Trade in Other Tobacco Products
    • Summary
    • Research Needs
    • Conclusions
    • References

Section 6—Economic and Other Implications of Tobacco Control

Section 7—Global Implications of Tobacco Control

  • Chapter 17. Ending the Epidemic (PDF 620 KB)
    • Milestones in Tobacco Control Economics
    • What We Have Learned—Major Conclusions
    • What We Need To Know—Research Priorities
    • Ending the Epidemic
    • References

Statistical Annex (PDF 827 KB)