High-Resolution Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cigarette Demand to Inform Tax Policy
Aims: Novel methods in behavioral economics permit the systematic assessment of the relationship between cigarette consumption and price. Toward informing tax policy, the goals of this study were to conduct a high-resolution analysis of cigarette demand in a large sample of adult smokers and to use the data to estimate the effects of tax increases in ten U.S. States.
Design: In-person descriptive survey assessment.
Setting: Academic departments at three universities.
Participants: Adult daily smokers (i.e., 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education); N = 1056.
Measurements: Estimated cigarette demand, demographics, expired carbon monoxide.
Findings: The cigarette demand curve exhibited highly variable levels of price sensitivity, especially in the form of ‘left-digit effects’ (i.e., very high price sensitivity as pack prices transitioned from one whole number to the next; e.g., $5.80-$6/pack). A $1 tax increase in the ten states was projected to reduce the economic burden of smoking by an average of $531M (range: $93.6M-$976.5M) and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162% (range: 114%- 247%).
Conclusions: Tobacco price sensitivity is nonlinear across the demand curve and in particular for pack-level left-digit price transitions. Tax increases in U.S. states with similar price and tax rates to the sample are projected to result in substantial decreases in smoking-related costs and substantial increases in tax revenues.
Topics: Cost-effectiveness / Economic impact of tobacco control / Impact on demand / Impact on the poor / Jobs and productivity / Tax and price / Tax avoidance and evasion / Tax levels and structure / Tobacco taxes revenues
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